Concepts / Holon

A holon is simultaneously a whole and a part, an important concept in systems thinking. It’s an evolving, self-organizing system (or phenomenon) composed of other holons. Their structures sit on the boundary of chaos and order (see complexity).

… the rules, or codes, which govern a social holon act not merely as negative constraints imposed on its actions, but also as positive precepts, maxims of conduct or moral imperatives. … Every holon will tend to persist in and asserts its particular patterns of activity. … No man is an island — he is a holon. (Koestler, A. 1967)

Front cover of the book The Ghost in the Machine


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